ASSIGNMENT 1 : Getting to know the key terms. (Personal Glossary relative to assessment-studies)

branding-terminologiesUpon going through the modules and other resources, I am amazed how a seemingly typical word such as Assessment” could become an entirely “intricate” and “complex” concept, definitely integral to the teaching-learning process, and is one of the “critical” foundation of education-studies.

Coming across several key terms and concepts from the readings, I gradually realized (and appreciate) how the course (EDS113) was creatively designed in a spiral and interconnected manner that makes it an easy and rewarding learning experience for the readers/learners like me to navigate through each materials and almost always end up enlightened with the ideas carefully laid-down from them.

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Here is a list of key-terms/concepts I came accross with and how I personally understood them:

A. Assessment Key-term tundems, groupings and classifications (distinguishing one from the other):

1. Characteristics of Assessment:
1.1. VALIDITY vs RELIABILITY vs FAIRNESS: As assessments create a basis of how we gauge our students’ performance as learners (and our own performance as teachers), it is but vital to ensure that the manner by which we deliver and execute such process is governed by “justifiable” standards. Although, “All assessment is ultimately subjective” [1], we still want our students to get the grade/output that they deserve, out of each assessments they go through, but how do we make sure that this is done?

1.1.1. VALIDITY – The characteristic of an assessment where “it measures what it supposed to measure”[1]. It is comparable with the concept of “Accuracy“, where the results of assessment show relevant nearness to the expected and ideal result. The assessment given match the learning goal.

example: In a Math class, a teacher does not give an “essay form” of assessment if what he really wanted to gauge is more of the students’ Arithmetic than their writing skills.
Note: “Unfortunately, no assessment is completely valid.” [1]   Valid vs Relia

1.1.2. RELIABILITY – The characteristic of an assessment to be “replicated or reproduced” and give the same “consistent” results (provided that the testing scenarios/environment are also the same). It is comparable with the concept of “Precission“, where assessments give the same results no matter how many times it is repeated.

example: Students taking essay type of assessments usually get different and varying results depending on the rater, as such form of assessment is greatly subjective. Thus, the results of the same assessment vary from rater to rater or from time to time where the same assessment is repeated. Hence, producing less reliable results.

1.1.3. FAIRNESS – The characteristic of an assessment to be “unbiased“. It gives equal opportunities for everyone to take and accomplish the assessment, regardless of any varying and contrasting backgrounds of the assessees.

example: In a Math class, the set of questions given in a problem solving assessment is different from low performer students than the high performing students. Low performing students are given typical questions, where as high performers are given advanced ones. Knowing that they belong to the same heterogeneous class, it is obviously “UNFAIR” to give unequal treatment to specific group of learners.

1.2. NORM vs CRITERION vs IPSATIVE assessment referencing: These characteristics of assessment describe how the results of assessment are relative to a certain standard, other assessees’ scores or the assessees’ own previous scores.

1.2.1. Norm-referencing – Assessment that involves comparison of results from one assessee to another. It promotes competetion as it creates ranking among the assessment takers and employs quota or cut-off lines where only a specific range/number of takers are considered, depending on what their scores are.

example: A Science teacher gives only plus points to those who get top 5 scores from a long test, and gives penalties to anyone who gets the bottom 10 scores. As their assessment/test scores are compared from one another to get their ranking, it promotes high level of competetion and creates an environment where students either feel fulfilled as they achieve top rank or get demotivated as they fall under the bottom performers.

1.2.2. Criterion-referencing – Assessment that involves a “fixed” referenced (as the student providing correct or wrong answer, for example.)
example: In a music class, students are given opportunity to proceed on the next choir training only if they pass the assessment. The assessment results are viewed only in a “fixed” pass or fail perspective and no comparison to other scores are made, thus making it fairer for the assessees.  Criterion-referenced test - Wikipedia modified

1.2.3. Ipsative assessment – Assessment that involves comparison of results from one’s own previous scores against the latest ones.

example: In a one on one tutorial session, a tutee is given the same set of questions he was previously given. Initial and final results of the assessment are reviewed to verify if he was able to achieve better than what he previously got.

1.3. Assessment vs. Evaluation: CLICK HERE (This is a hyperlink from my personal post via UPOU Myportal)

1.4. Assessment Relative to the teaching learning process :  CLICK HERE (This is a hyperlink from my personal post via UPOU Myportal)

2. Purposes of Assessment:  CLICK HERE (This is a hyperlink from my personal post via UPOU Myportal)
2.1. SUMMATIVE vs FORMATIVE assessment:
2.1.1. Summative Assessment- Is mainly given at the end of a course or a class period. It usually aims to determine whether the students achieved learning or if the teachers completely accomplish learning goals. Thus, it is a high-stake assessment.

example: Long tests, periodical exams, Mid-final term exams, end of term practical exams, etc.

summative-vs-formative2.1.2. Formative Assessment- Is mainly on-going and continous. It aims to provide the teacher/student with feedbacks regarding what their current standing is.

example: Teachers always asks snap questions to catch class attention and to determine their range of understanding relative to the lesson. Questions like, “what do you think this implies? How would you perform the task? Could you give us more examples about it?“, allow both the teacher and the students to continously evaluate current understanding of the “content” or reations to the “instruction”.

2.2. TRADITIONAL vs ALTERNATIVE assessment:
2.2.1. Traditional assessment – Are the common paper-and-pencil tests, where students are given “knowledge” tests with time-constraint and focused on lower order learning skills. Passive learning. teacher and/or subject centered.

example: The usual quizzes or class activities where students are required to do rote memorization, etc. TRADITIONAL VS. ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT By Teresa Shull.htm_20130122091801 modified

2.2.2. Alternative assessment – Is more of a formative and holistic (sometimes also refered to as “authentic”) type of assessment where students are allowed to collaborate in group activities and are given enough freedom on their learning. Active learning. Student-centered.

example: In a PE class, the students are given opportunities to explore on the sports materials and asked to give their take on their usage.

3. Types of Assessment:
3.1. FORMAL vs INFORMAL assessment:
3.1.1. Formal Assessment – Data driven. Summative type, where it usually assess the overall achievement of the students. More of norm-referenced type of assessment where results are viewed as abiding by the standards or not (sometimes refered to as standardized test since results from one assessee are compared to how the others ranked based from a specified standard/data.)
example: NSAT’s (National Secondary Achievement Tests), NCEE’s, Board exams, etc.)

3.1.2. Informal Assessment – Rather than data, it is driven by the current performance or standing of the students/teachers. Formative type, where it usually assess the current performance of the students. More of a criterion-referenced type of assessment where the results are viewed based from a fixed reference/standard.
example: Portfolios, Journal/blog creation, reflective essays, etc.

4. Ways of doing assessments (gathering evidence) [2]
4.1.Formative – On-going and given within the same time of learning.
4.2. Summative – Usually given at the end of the course to determine overall achievement.
4.3. Direct – Evident and tangible representation of student-achievement.
4.4. Indirect – Implied represention of students’ potential achievement.
4.5. Objective – Questions associated with a given form of assessment have fixed and constant answers.
4.6. Subjective – Answers vary depending on the rater.
4.7. Traditional – The commonly accustomed type of assessments like matching type, multiple choice exams, etc.
4.8. Performance – Requires students to demonstrate skills.
4.9. Embedded – Assessment incorporated in the course work.
4.10. Local – created by faculty and/or staff

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B. Other key terms and concepts regarding assessment: [3]
1. External Assessment – Assessment that make use of rubrics or standards provided by entities outside of the group being assessed (e.g. Board exams, Equivalency exams, etc.)
2. High stakes Assessment – Mostly summative exams that determines overall achievement (e.g. Board exams, comprehensive post graduate exams, etc.)
3. Rubric – A scoring tool that includes specific measures and standards in rating a specific piece of work like assigment, essays, etc.
4. Assessment for Accountability – Assessment that involves evaluation of a certain program to satisfy external stakeholders. (e.g. accreditation of college programs, etc.)

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References:
[1] http://www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/assessment.htm
[2] http://assessment.uconn.edu/primer/how1.html
[3] http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/glossary.html

Photo Credits:
http://www.logodesignworks.com/blog/key-terminologies-branding-101
http://cyfernetsearch.org/ilm_3_3b
http://teamofcollaborators.wordpress.com/formative-vs-summative-assessment/
http://www.tuskyvalley.k12.oh.us/powpak/cgi-bin/article_display_page.pl?id=tshull&ar=3
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_assessment

Many Thanks!
-Jeff

About this blog

 

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About Jeff.M.D.C.
I'm an intricate combination of varying temperaments; Happy and living life by the minute. "I do not aspire to fame or glory. I do not aim on rivaling others whose conditions, intelligence and circumstances are different from mine." -jpr. Want to know more? Ask me. =)

2 Responses to ASSIGNMENT 1 : Getting to know the key terms. (Personal Glossary relative to assessment-studies)

  1. Carlos Velez says:

    Hi Jeff. Just a quick note thanking for a very nice summary of key points. Comprehensive yet concise; not an easy task. Best wishes, Carlos V.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Jeff.M.D.C. says:

      Hi Carlos!

      I appreciate your positive feedback and thank you for dropping by. I certainly hope that this humble ‘writing’ helps you and others in our passion to teach and be taught. Cheers. 🙂

      Like

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